THEY MUST GO Page 236
Chapter 10: Separation—Only Separation
 
 
Prev Page   Page Guide   Next Page
236 THEY MUST GO

bbul). The victorious powers immediately began to quarrel over bthe spoils, and in the Second Balkan War (1913) Bulgaria was bhumiliatingly defeated. It vowed vengeance and the “redemp- btion” of land and people.

bAs a result of the two wars and the Treaties of Bucharest band Constantinople, massive emigrations took place. More than b100,000 Turks fled the Balkans; 15,000 Bulgarians fled bMacedonia for Bulgaria; 10,000 Greeks left the area of bMacedonia ceded to the Serbs and Bulgars; 10,000 Greeks fled bwestern Thrace, then occupied by Bulgaria. These fled on their bown, but under the Treaty of Constantinople (1913) 48,570 bMuslims emigrated from western Thrace to Turkey and 46,764 bBulgarians left Turkey’s eastern Thrace for western Thrace.

bThe Turkish-Bulgarian emigrations, although spontane- bous, were nevertheless recognized by Turkey and Bulgaria in a bprotocol annexed to their 1913 peace treaty. For the first time bthe idea of an exchange of populations was formulated. It actually bconfirmed a fait accompli, but both states realized the ultimate bwisdom of being rid of dangerous minorities.

bThe Balkan-Asia Minor caldron bubbled on. The Young bTurks of the Ottoman Empire came to the very correct conclu- bsion that any of its territory inhabited by a strong national bgroup guaranteed rebellion and separation. The Turks chose to bsolve the problem by giving the minorities the choice of being b“Turkified” or eradicated. The Armenians suffered the most, bwith some two million massacred and many others expelled. But bthere was a general determination by the Turks to make the bempire a homogeneous Turkish estate. In 1914, 115,000 Greeks bwere expelled from eastern Thrace to Greece; 150,000 Greeks bwere sent from the Turkish coast of western Anatolia to Greece; band Turkey accepted 115,000 Muslims from Greece in ex- bchange. Turkish propaganda calling upon Muslims living in bother Balkan countries to come “home” to Muslim Turkey bbrought 135,000 more refugees.

bMeanwhile, the Bulgarians, seething with irredentist bvengenance, joined the Central Powers in World War I to regain bland and people—and once again lost. By 1919, after the war, b139,000 Bulgarians lived in land held by Greece. Greek Premier bVenizelos understood that no permanent peace with Bulgaria bcould ever be achieved as long as a sizable Bulgarian population b 

Prev Page   Page Guide   Next Page
 
 
THEY MUST GO Page 236
Chapter 10: Separation—Only Separation